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TitleRural development outcomes and policies in South Africa"s Limpopo Province
AuthorMalatji, Moye Thabang
SubjectRural development
SubjectPoverty alleviation
SubjectSocio-economic indicators
SubjectRural development outcomes and policies
SubjectLand policy
SubjectSignificantly rural areas
SubjectPredominantly rural areas
SubjectSouth Africa
SubjectLimpopo Province
Format1 online resource (xii, 276 leaves) : illustrations
AbstractRural development is a key policy area in developing countries. Its basic premise boils down to improving the economic well-being and quality of life of rural people. Best practices regarding rural development in developing countries, including Benin, China, Korea and Rwanda, that are known to have been relatively successful in reducing poverty and diversifying the rural economy showed that strong governance, institutional capabilities, active rural communities, and most importantly funding, are all essential for successful rural development. Moreover, land reform and investment in agriculture, infrastructure, education and health play a crucial role in the early stages of rural development. The aim of this study was to examine the concept of rural development as well as policy measures and best practices relating to rural development in order to formulate a rural development strategy for the rural areas of Limpopo Province. To achieve its research objectives, the study used a qualitative research method and secondary data analysis. Before 1995, rural development in South Africa was neglected, resulting in underdevelopment and impoverishment in rural areas. Post-1994, policies for rural development were adopted by the democratic government to improve the economic well-being of people living in rural communities. However, this had thus far limited success as high levels of poverty and inequalities in rural areas still prevails. Those highly affected were rural people in Limpopo Province. In 2018, Limpopo was the most predominantly rural province in South Africa, with over 80% of the population living in rural areas. The study classified Limpopo’s local municipalities into three types of areas, namely predominantly rural area (a local municipality is classified as predominantly rural area if the share of rural population in the local municipal area is above 50%), significantly rural area (that is, a local municipality where the share of rural population in the local area represents between 15% and 49% of the local area’s total population), and predominantly urban area (that is, a local municipality where the share of rural population in the local area is below 15%). Out of 25 local municipalities in Limpopo, 19 were predominantly rural areas, five were significantly rural areas and one was predominantly urban area. Findings show that, in rural areas of Limpopo, there was the prevalence of lower-wage jobs, lower educational attainment, a higher share of low-income households, and more than half of the population depended on government"s social grants (including old age grant) and remittances as their income sources. Analysis indicates that educational attainment, household income levels, consumption expenditure and investment tend to be relatively lower, while the unemployment rate is higher, in predominantly rural areas. The economic structure is changing as the share of the primary sector in total Gross Value Added (GVA) is slowly declining, while that of the tertiary sector is gradually increasing. Regarding the contributions to the GVA and employment by sector in predominantly rural areas, agriculture contributed less than 3% to the total GVA, yet it is one of the top employers, contributing 13% of employment. Although mining contributed the most (23,7%) to the total GVA, it only employed 4% of the workforce. To address challenges in rural areas, a rural development strategy for Limpopo Province should contain policy tools that will promote infrastructure development for better access to education, communication, transport, safe water and other basic facilities. It should also encourage capital formation in rural enterprises; promote multi-sectoral development involving reviving agriculture, developing tourism and manufacturing sectors; and promote agro-processing and downstream mineral beneficiation; improve support and access to funding for rural enterprises; and promote the development of the green economy to create decent job opportunities. Access to land and land tenure security are a necessity to stimulate investment needed to accelerate rural development.
AbstractM. Com. (Economics)