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TitleThe effect of highly active anti-retroviral treatment on glucose and lipid metabolism in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients at clinics in the Polokwane Local Municipality,Limpopo Province,South Africa
AuthorMashao, Mapula Mercy
SubjectAnti-retroviral treatment
SubjectLipid metabolism
SubjectHuman Immunodeficiency Virus
SubjectAIDS vaccines -- South Africa -- Limpopo
SubjectHIV (Virus) -- South Africa -- Limpopo
Formatxiv, 87 leaves
AbstractThesis (MSc. (Physiology)) -- University of Limpopo, 2016
AbstractRelevance: An increase in the number of HIV positive patients receiving HAART raises important concerns about the metabolic impact of these regimens. The treatment effectively reduces viral load and increase CD4+ count; unfortunately it seems to disrupt carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways thereby increasing the risk for CDL by placing an already chronically ill HIV population at risk of more chronic diseases. As a developing country, accessibility to safer regimens of HAART is limited thus patients exposed to toxicities from long term exposure to sub-optimal regimens are even at greater risk. The aim of this study was to assess the long term effects of HAART on biochemical parameters and body composition as an indication of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Methods: A prospective cohort of 87 patients receiving HAART for 12 months or more was conducted at baseline and follow-up. Venous blood was collected after an overnight fast. An automated enzymatic colorimetric test was used to analyse plasma glucose and serum TC, HDL-C and TG. The LDL-C levels were calculated from TC and HDL-C. Leptin levels were analysed using human leptin radioimmunoassay kit. Insulin was analysed using an automated access ultrasensitive insulin assay. Anthropometric measurements were taken for the determination of body fat distribution and BMI. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 23. Results: Total cholesterol, LDL-C, and waist circumference significantly decreased from baseline to follow-up (p<0.05). Triglycerides and LDL-C levels were significantly affected by durations between 24–47 and 49–72 months respectively. There were no significant changes in the mean levels of leptin observed within the two lines of regime. Mean leptin levels were 11.36±8.52 ng/ml and 9.67±6.42 ng/ml at baseline and follow-up respectively. Furthermore, the duration of HAART significantly affected BMI and WC at 49–72 months. Patients that met the criteria for diagnosis of DM were only found in PI containing regimens at 6.3% and 5.9% baseline and follow-up respectively. In the first line regimen, the prevalence of DM was only found at follow-up. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that longer duration between months 49–72 has significant negative effects on the glucose and lipid metabolism of HIV positive patients. The study also highlighted that patients on combinations containing PIs and NRTIs such as stavudine and zidovudine are at higher risk of developing metabolic diseases.
AbstractUniversity of Limpopo
PublisherUniversity of Limpopo