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TitleEffects of maturity and processing on quality properties of the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit juice
AuthorMaoto, Makaepea Mossa
SubjectWatermelon
SubjectPhytochemical
SubjectAntioxidants
SubjectMaturity
SubjectFiltration
SubjectThermosonication
SubjectResponse surface methodology
Subject664.804304
SubjectWatermelons -- South Africa
SubjectFruit juices -- South Africa
SubjectMelons -- South Africa
SubjectCitrus juices -- South Africa
SubjectCitrus -- South Africa
SubjectFruit -- Presevation -- South Africa
Date2019
Date2019-06-03T08:31:50Z
Date2019-06-03T08:31:50Z
Date2019-05-17
TypeDissertation
Format1 online resource (108 leaves)
Format1 online resource (x, 86 leaves : color illustrations, color maps)
AbstractMSCFST
AbstractDepartment of Food Science and Technology
AbstractWatermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice is rich in phytochemicals that possess antioxidant properties which are known to have a positive contribution to human health. Colour, pH, total soluble solids, lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, total polyphenolic content and antioxidants activity are quality properties that characterise watermelon juice. However, these quality properties undergo some chemical changes throughout the stages of maturity of the fruit as well as during thermal processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maturity and filtration on the physicochemical properties (colour, pH, total soluble solids) and the phytochemicals (lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, total polyphenolic content and antioxidants activity) of fresh watermelon juice. It further investigated thermosonication effects on these quality properties using response surface methodology (RSM). RSM considering temperature (25 – 52ºC), time (2 – 10 min) and amplitude level (24.1 – 60 μm) at a constant frequency of 20 kHz were the independent variables while colour variables (L*, a* and b*, C* and h*), pH, total soluble solids, lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, total polyphenolic content and antioxidants activity were the dependent variables. Results showed that colour, pH, total soluble solids, lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, total polyphenolic content and antioxidants activity of watermelon fruit juice are maturity dependent. All the physicochemical and phytochemical properties increased with maturity. The combination of the CIELAB parameters (L*, a*, b*) was clearly explained by the Chroma (C*) and hue (hº). The (C*) and hº values of the watermelon fruit juice were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the stages of maturity. The red colour was observed to be more saturated in the fully - ripe sample as indicated by the highest Chroma (7.35) values. The half - ripe sample which was observed to be pink - red had a C* of 5.88 while the lowest (4.32) value was observed from the unripe sample. The highest hº value was obtained from unripe sample (83.89), while lower value was observed from the fully - ripe (76.03) sample because of the saturation of the red colour in the fully - ripe sample. The total soluble solids also increased with stages of maturity 6.66 to 6.60 at half - ripe while at fully - ripe redness changed from 9.3 to 8.99 and TSS 8.37 to 8.02. Filtration has shown a significant (p < 0.05) on the C* and hº values. There was a higher retention of all dependent variables at lower thermosonication treatment (25ºC; 24.4 μm), especially the lycopene which increased by 127%. Model predictions for the colour properties and phytochemicals were closely correlated to the experimental results obtained. Prediction models were found to be significant (p < 0.05) with low standard errors and high coefficients of determination (R2).
AbstractNRF
IdentifierMaoto, Makaepea Mossa (2019) Effects of maturity and processing on quality properties of the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit juice, University of Venda, South Africa. .
Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/11602/1310