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TitleDetermination of anions and cations in natural water
AuthorNetshifhefhe, Humbelani Kelly
SubjectTrace metals
SubjectSurface water
Format1 online resource (ix, 105 leaves: color illustrations, color maps)
AbstractMSc (Chemistry)
AbstractDepartment of Chemistry
AbstractSurface water is used for domestic and agricultural activities in Musina region and other surrounding areas. This is because of the shortage of potable water. As a result, the people living in the region and its surrounding areas are potentially exposed to hazardous contaminants that may be present in the surface water. It is therefore important to ascertain the quality of the surface water in the region. Surface water samples were collected from Mutale, Nwanedi, Tshipise and Nzhelele rivers. The samples were analysed for anions such as fluoride (F-), chloride (Cl-), nitrate (NO3-), phosphate (PO43-), sulphate (SO42-); cations such as aluminium (Al), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and trace metals such as lithium (Li), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), molybdenum (Mo), cadmium (Cd), thallium (Tl) and lead (Pb) by using analytical techniques such as IC, ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The same samples were also investigated for other parameters such as pH, temperature, EC, TH, TDS, Na % and SAR. The WHO (2008), SANS 241 (2006) and Canadian guideline (2017) were used as a water quality guideline for drinking purposes. Higher concentrations of Li, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Al, Ca, Mg, K and Na in river water were detected in rainy season, whereas higher concentrations of As, Mo, K and Fe were recorded in dry season. The concentration of F-, Cd, Tl and Pb showed low contamination level in river samples. The results demonstrated that Tshipise river water was contaminated with high concentration of parameters: TDS (1864.0.8-3372.8 mg L-1), EC (2960.3-5270 mS cm-1), F- (6.403-8.419 mg L-1), SO42- (289.657-326.598 mg L-1), Na (836.690-922.810 mg L-1) and As (10.017-11.267 μg L-1) and relative to the (WHO) water guidelines. Nwanedi river also showed higher values of EC (298.0-699.0) mS cm-1 and TDS (190.3-447.5) mg L-1. In this study, the results indicated that water from Tshipise and Nwanedi river is not suitable for human consumption based on the guidelines of drinking water. The results also indicated that the soil sample had abundance of Ca, Al, Mn and Fe with concentration ranging from 0.13-10595, 0.0084-4.16, 0.0455-1116.5, 2.4-287404 mg Kg-1 respectively.