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TitlePhysical, functional and nutritional properties of flours from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) varieties fortified with vitamin B₂ and zinc oxide
AuthorRamashia, Shonisani Eugenia
SubjectFinger millet
SubjectFortification
SubjectPhysical properties
SubjectMicronutrient deficiency
SubjectNutritional composition
SubjectFunctional properties
Date2018
Date2018-10-09T13:57:35Z
Date2018-10-09T13:57:35Z
Date2018-09-21
TypeThesis
Format1 online resource (xx, 132 leaves : color illustrations)
AbstractPhD (Food Science and Technology)
AbstractDepartment of Food Science and Technology
AbstractFinger millet (FM) (Eleusine coracana) grains are the staple food in Africa and India for communities with low socio-economic growth. The grains have high content of calcium, dietary fibre, carbohydrates that are rich in protein, fat, iron, phosphorus, vitamin and essential amino acids. Flours from milky cream (MC), brown and black varieties of FM were fortified with vitamin (vit) B₂ and zinc oxide (ZnO) in order to restore the nutrients that were lost during milling and sieving processes. The main aim of the study was to analyse the physical, nutritional composition and functional properties of flours from three (3) FM varieties fortified with vit B2 and ZnO. Pearl millet was used for comparison with the results obtained from this study. MC, brown and black varieties of FM flour treatments were arranged as a completely randomized design (CRD) in three (3) replicates. Physical properties: dimensional properties, colour attributes, kernel weight, bulk density (BD), true density, porosity, surface area, kernel volume, aspect ratio, sphericity and moisture content of the FM grains were analysed. Vitamins and minerals were also analysed. Functional properties: colour attributes, bulk density (BD), water absorption capacity (WAC), oil absorption capacity (OAC), swelling capacity (SC), swelling index (SI), foaming capacity (FC), foaming solubility (FS), dispersibility (Dis), viscosity (cool & hot paste), pasting properties, thermal properties and microscopic structure of FM flours were determined. Data generated were analysed using SPSS version 23.0. Moisture content of MC FM grain and flour was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than brown and black varieties but was within the specified range of <12%. This indicated the long storage shelf-life of the grains and flours. Length of brown FM grains was significantly higher (p < 0.05) when compared to MC and black varieties. MC variety was significantly higher than other varieties in width, kernel weight, bulk density, true density, aspect ratio and sphericity. The information obtained from this study will help in designing suitable equipment for planting, harvesting, storage, processing and packaging of grains. Pearl millet grain was significantly higher than FM flours in all physical properties. MC FM was significantly higher iii in L* (whiteness/ brightness), b* (yellowness/ blueness), C* (chroma), Hº (hue angle) and ZnO values compared to brown and black flours. MC raw fortified finger millet (RFFM) and instant fortified finger millet (IFFM) flours were significantly higher in vitamin B2. People prefer fortified MC flour because most of people living in South Africa use white maize as their staple food and it is similar to MC. Colour is the most important quality parameter in food processing industries and it is also attracts the consumer’s choice and preference. The vitamins and minerals that were lost during sieving, drying and milling were replaced by the two (2) fortificants added which may help to reduce the micronutrient deficiencies. Milky cream FM flours showed significantly high (p < 0.05) values in BD, WAC, OAC, SI, FC and dis. These are the fundamental physico-chemical properties that reflect the interaction between the composition and molecular structure. Length of brown FM grains was significantly higher (p < 0.05) when compared to MC and black variety. The MC variety was significantly higher than other varieties in width, kernel weight, bulk density, true density, aspect ratio and sphericity. Pearl millet was significantly higher than FM flours in all physical properties. MCFM variety was significantly higher in L* (whiteness/ brightness), b* (yellowness/ blueness), C* (chroma), and Hº (hue angle) values as compared to other FM varieties. Moisture content of MC flour was significantly higher as compared to brown and black FM flours. Pasting properties of MC raw finger millet (RFM) and RFFM flours showed significantly higher in peak viscosity (PV) (3518 cP), final viscosity (FV) (6554 cP), breakdown viscosity (BDV) (703 cP) and setback viscosity (SV) (3868 cP) as compared to other RFM and RFFM flours. Brown instant finger millet (IFM) and IFFM flours had significantly higher of PV (723 cP), trough viscosity (TV) (655 cP) and FV (983 cP). IFFM flours had significantly higher values of PV (712 cP), TV (614 cP) and FV (970 cP), respectively. The instant pearl millet (IPM) and instant fortified pearl millet (IFPM) showed significantly higher value in BDV (330 cP and 131 cP) and SV (362 cP and 346 cP), respectively. Thermal properties of black RFM was significantly higher in onset temperature (To) (74.31), peak temperature (TP) (81.94ºC) and conclusion temperature (Tc) (89.64) and RFFM starches were significantly high in To (81.80ºC), TP (84.22ºC) and TC (92.81ºC), respectively. Milky ivcream IFM starch showed significantly higher values in TO (84.57ºC), TP (87.27ºC), Tc (92.81ºC) and ΔH (7.63ºC) compared to other starches. Brown IFFM flour was significantly higher value in To (85.88ºC) and TP (87.14ºC). The starch of IFPM was significantly higher in enthalpy of gelatinisation (6.91ºC) and PHI (2.94ºC) as compared to other FM starches. Brown IFM flour showed significantly higher value in gelatinisation temperature range (13.50ºC). The microscopic structure revealed that RFM and RFFM flours had oval and smooth surfaces. RFM and RFFM flours showed positive effect after fortificants were added because the starch granules, protein bodies and protein matrix were visible and formed crystal. IFM and IFFM flours had some holes, dents and rough surfaces. Instant fortified flours showed negative effect after fortificants were added due to technological processes such as recooking and remilling of flours. Different variations observed on physical, nutritional and functional properties after adding the fortificants may affect the physical, chemical and organoleptic properties of food produced from fortified flour. There is need to fortify FM flours with ZnO which may help to replace the value lost during milling and sieving operations. It is possible that the availability of ZnO could reduce the incidence of some non-communicable diseases.
AbstractNRF
Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/11602/1245