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TitleDie graderingsbeginsel by die adjektief in Afrikaans
AuthorKruger, Pieter Andries
AbstractThe point of departure of the study is the "Aspects"- model of a sentence, i.e. S +NP + VP. Predication is defined and a description is given of how predication and referent form a proposition. With the basic sentence structure as starting point, the different relations in such an utterance are stated. Firstly the relation of reference is noted. For the purpose of this study sense is of great importance for sense shows the relevance between lexical items within the lexicon. It is generally accepted that reference is relevant to the NP and sense to the VP, the grannnatical head of a sentence. In this study the most important of the VP types is the copula and in more detail, copulas that combine with adjectives, i.e. the so-called adjectival copulas or a.djectival/ph:r.>ase clause predications. Within these specific structures we find the grading of adjectives. The connection between verbs and adjectives is also investigated, because these two entities are traditionally seen as different parts of speech. The notion is accepted that there is a clearly discernable semantic difference between verbs and adjectives in syntactic context. Verbs are seen as the description of action,state or process, while, on the contrary, the main semantic feature of adjectives is grading. The adjective in the first place does not contain descriptive information, but a judgment which is expressed according to a grading scale. This study relies strongly on the semantic theory of Lyons and Bolinger re adjective grading. A broad usage of transformational insights are implemented. People tend to polarize and to think in terms of opposites regarding adjectives. A concept of grading is attained by a balance between the polar points. Grading occurs logically, psycholically and linguistically. Grading also occurs by means of predications that express judgments and by means of the graders "te" and "genoeg". A differentiation is made between antonyms and complementaries. If we scrutinize these opposites, we find certain grading characteristics. Norms and gradability are narrowly connected. An indication is given of how grading occurs according to a certain norm which is applied. By means of studying the comparative· clause construction in Afrikaans, it is indicated that all adjectives (absolutes excluded) combine with grading words. The comparative aspect of adjectives finds expression in the grading principle. Adjectives are judged by means of a scale. This scale appears in the so-called "degrees of comparison". These comparisons also express degrees of intensity, namely a neutral intensity, an~ intensity that is more severe and an intensity that is dominating. Although the positive (of the comparisons) is no comparison at all, a certain judgment 1s expressed. seen as an inclusive comparison. The superlative is True comparison is only expressed by the comparative. judgments are based on comparison. All human The comparison is ascertained by means of a certain norm. When adjectives are surveyed, it appears that all adjectives have degrees of comparison. By close investigation we find the contrary. Norms are stated by means of comparison. The norm can be indicated implicitly or explicitly. The norm could either be assumed or described precisely or confirmed by means of the extension of the adjectival clause. Norms are determined by the speaker"s own judgment. The norm can be directly or indirecly deduced from the speaker"s attitude towards a certain object. The norm does not belong to the "meaning" of an adjective even if the norm is semantically marked. The norm can be ascertained by the subjective judgment of a speaker or by means of a consensus. The norm is also given in discourse by rule or institutionalized norms or by quantification. All adjectives are not of a similar kind. The diversity is to be noticed in (i) their syntactic appearance and (ii) their degree of grading. Certain subclasses are indicated, namely (1) colour adjectives, (2) adjectives describing categorial differences, (3) verbal-adjectives and (4) adjectives expressing one-way directionality. Seeing that Lyons" semantic theory regarding adjectives is not powerful enough to explain all occurrences of adjectival grading, the theories of Bolinger and Bierwisch are introduced. With Bolinger"s referent and reference modification as base, the grading principle is applied to adjectives that appear in attributive and predicative position. Adjective grading also relates to grading differences which are laid out on a scale. These adjectives as such are not graded, but the semantic relation of the adjectives. Certain subclasses are indicated. Spatial adjectives are handled within the framework of Bierwisch"s dimension theory. The study also tries to indicate in what measure grading appears within intensive forms which are traditionally classified as ungradable. By means of hyponymy the sense relation between lexical items is described. Hyponymical adjectives show semantic components. By choosing one of the components an intensified grading is accomplished. Some hyponymical adjectives show a difference in semantic value, whilst others express a certain judgment. Many adjectives have no counterpart, e.g. adjectives that indicate a certain condition. In conclusion the study also attempts to indicate in what manner judgement is graded within the subclasses of (i) manner, time and place adverbs; (ii) absolutes and, (iii) the types such as antibiotic~ etc.
AbstractAfrikaans and Theory of Literature